• Energy & Power

Photovoltaics: Basic Design Principles and Components



If you are thinking of generating your own electricity, you should consider a photovoltaic (PV) system—a way to generate electricity by using energy from the sun. These systems have several advantages: they are cost-effective alternatives in areas where extending a utility power line is very expensive; they have no moving parts and require little maintenance; and they produce electricity without polluting the environment. These pages will introduce you to the basic design principles and components of PV systems. It will also help you discuss these systems knowledgeably with an equipment supplier or system installer.

Introduction to PV Technology

Single PV cells(also known as “solar cells”) are connected electrically to form PV modules,which are the building blocks of PV systems. The module is the smallest PV unit that can be used to generate substantial amounts of PV power. Although individual PV cells produce only small amounts of electricity, PV modules are manufactured with varying electrical outputs ranging from a few watts to more than 100 watts of direct current (DC) electricity. The modules can be connected into PV arraysfor powering a wide variety of electrical equipment.

Two primary types of PV technologies available commercially are crystalline silicon and thin film. In crystalline-silicon technologies, individual PV cells are cut from large single crystals or from ingots of crystalline silicon. In thinfilm PV technologies, the PV material is deposited on glass or thin metal that mechanically supports the cell or module. Thin-film-based modules are produced in sheets that are sized for specified electrical outputs. In addition to PV modules, the components needed to complete a PV system may include a battery charge controller, batteries, an inverter or power control unit (for alternating-current loads), safety disconnects and fuses, a grounding circuit, and wiring.